Non perdere il commento al test Invalsi 2015! Parleremo della prova di terza media con Roberto Ricci, responsabile Invalsi che spiegherà il procedimento giusto …
Is it really true that teenage girls + media = low self-esteem?
The issue of media’s impact on teenagers has generated a lot of interest in the
last decade. Despite contradictory findings, all researchers agree that teenage
girls as a group are focused on their looks–especially on what they don’t like
about themselves! Marketing departments and ad agencies spend millions each year
targeting teenage girls who spend much of their hard-earned dollars (and their
parents’ hard-earned dollars!) on looking good. Although the message of “girl
power” is prevalent in today’s marketing messages, so is the irrefutable idea
that “sexy” and “thin” are in!
The dieting industry alone generates 40 billion dollars per year in America. If
you believe diets are just for adults, you will be shocked to learn that a
Harvard study (Fat Talk, Harvard University Press) published in 2000 revealed
that 86% of teenage girls are on a diet or believe they should be on one. Diets
are common among both teens and children. According to the National Eating
Disorders Association, 51% of 9 and 10-year-old girls actually feel better about
themselves when on a diet. As a society, our obsession with thin is relatively
new. Most people (especially teens) are shocked to find that sex icon Marilyn
Monroe actually wore a size 14!
But pick up a fashion magazine today and you’ll find models who are thinner than
98% of all the girls and women in America. Turn on a television and see ‘sexy’
celebrities such as Shania Twain, Britney Spears and Pamela Anderson baring
their flesh. It is these role models who have become the standard of what is in
vogue in the twenty-first century.
Do Teenage Girls have Low Self-esteem because of Media?
One of the most fascinating shows on self-image for teens was aired on Discovery
Channel’s “Sex Files” program (Episode 12: Girl Power). During the show, they
reported on eating disorders on the island of Fiji. In 1995, this tropical
paradise had only 3 percent of girls with eating disorders in 1995.
Then western television programs were introduced, including “hits” such as ER,
Melrose Place and Xena: Warrior Princess. Three years later, the eating
disorders in girls on the island rose to 15%. A surprising follow-up study
reported 74% of Fijian girls feeling “too fat or big” and 62% had dieted in the
last month–surprising in a culture that typically upholds curvaceous women as
Five Ways to Ensure Media Does Not Contribute To Low Self-esteem in Teenage
Fortunately, parents have a huge impact on a teenage girl’s self-esteem–more so
than even the media. Thus, there is much we as parents can do to ensure our
teenage girls’ self-esteem soars! Here are five helpful parenting tips:
1. Encourage and Support Your Daughter’s Achievements and Passions. Focus
on what it is that your teenage daughter is good at. If she enjoys math, animals
or singing, support her. Acknowledge the presence of pretty girls in the media
with, “Obviously outward beauty is one of her gifts. You’ve got many gifts
yourself!” Then name these gifts as well as you can.
2. Help your Daughter Get in Touch with Reality. We are bombarded with
perfect idealized models of what a woman should look like. But the fact is less
than 1% of the girls out there will ever become a super model. Besides, no one
can compete with computer airbrushing! Share these facts with your daughter. And
please note that if you are complaining about your own “thunder thighs”, this
message is going straight to your daughter’s heart. Make a commitment to raise
your own self-image. No one, including you, is perfect. It is our imperfections
that actually make us human. Having the courage to be imperfect makes our life
easier and much more joyful.
3. Focus on a Healthy Lifestyle – The less junk food you keep around the
house, the less you and your family will eat it! Do you and your family a
favor–stock up on the healthy stuff and refrain from insisting on second
helpings. If the scale in your home is a bit of an obsession, consider tossing
it out. Instead focus on how well and how healthy each of you feels instead.
4. Contribute to Others – Our preoccupation with our own weight can be
positively transformed when we start focusing on others. Volunteerism boosts
self-esteem. Volunteer as a family, bring a smile to others, and you’ll all be
reminded of how truly fortunate you are.
5. Encourage Dad to Pay Attention in a Positive Way – Help Dad understand
how detrimental well intentioned teasing about weight or looks can be. Encourage
him to spend time with his daughter focusing on all the things that she is great
It is sad that many teenage girls and women believe that they need to be someone
other than who they truly are. It is time to come clean for ourselves, for the
race of woman and for our children, by beginning to love the person we are–flaws
and all. Embracing our imperfection gives us the opportunity to see all the
awesome things about ourselves: to acknowledge that we do have nice eyes, nice
breasts, nice legs, nice whatever! And as we stop hiding our flaws, suddenly our
psychological zits will become the beauty marks that make us stand out from the
OPEN ME – I did not create this video. This is the Miss Representation 8 minute trailer. If you’re interested in more, here is the link to “Killing Us Softly”, …
When were the forms of media created? When did advertising first show up? Who owns the media?
Creation of the various forms of media
Newspapers & Magazines ~ 1880
Movies ~ 1910
Television ~ 1945
Cable Television ~ 1980’s
Satellite Television, Internet, Digital Communication ~ End of the 20th century
In 1920, radio was first developed, primarily for use by the military, strictly for sendingHistory of the Media – Old Radios messages from one location to another. David Sternoff, the then-president of RCA, first had the idea to sell radio sets to consumers, or what were then called radio receivers. However, consumers needed a reason to buy radios, so RCA was the first to set up radio stations all over the country. Between 1920 and 1922, 400 radio stations were set up, starting with KBKA in Pittsburgh. Stations were also set up by universities, newspapers, police departments, hotels, and labor unions.
By 1923, there were 600 radio stations across the United States, and $83 million worth of sets had been sold.
The biggest difference in radio before and after 1923 was that the first advertising was not heard on the radio until 1923. RCA at the time was made up of four companies:
United Fruit was one of the first global corporations, and one of the first to advertise on the radio. The AT&T division of RCA first thought about selling time on the air to companies, which marked the start of “toll broadcasting.” WEAF was the first station to operate this way, causing widespread outrage, and accusation of “polluting the airwaves.”
Because of this controversy, the practice of selling advertising time was called “trade name publicity.” Sponsors linked their name with a program on the air, rather than advertising a specific product in a 30 second “commercial” as we know it today.
Why did AT&T decide to experiment with charging companies for air time?
AT&T was not making any money from broadcasting at the time since they only made transmitters, not receivers. They only made money when new radio stations bought the equipment required to broadcast. They did not make money from consumers buying radios.
AT&T also started the practice of paying performers for their time on the air, rather than only volunteers, which was standard practice for radio content up until that point.
The first radio network
In 1926, RCA set up the first radio network, NBC. They decided it was more effective and efficient to produce shows in New York City, and then link the main radio station with stations all across the country, connected by AT&T (another RCA company) phone lines. (Now television networks are linked by satellite to their affiliates).
This was the beginning of the network affiliates system. The ideal network makes sure everyone in the country is capable of listening to their signal. NBC at the time had two philosophies:
Radio content was a “public service,” whose function was to sell radios.
Radio content was designed to generate income from advertising.
History of the Media In 1927, the second network was formed. It was CBS, started by William Paley. Paley was the first to think that networks could make money strictly from advertising, not even getting involved in the sales of radios. Like AT&T, CBS did not make radios. From the start, they made their money from selling advertising.
The rising of radio networks caused the Radio Act of 1927 to be passed, which established the FRC, or what is now known as the FCC, to allocate broadcast licenses. The need for such an organization was brought on by the fact that airwaves are limited resources, and broadcasting itself is a scarce public resource. By the 1930’s, the structure of radio have been set by the commercial format, although advertising never dominated radio like it would television later on.
In the 1920’s and ’30’s, radio programs were divided into two groups. Sponsored shows, which had advertisers, and unsponsored shows, which did not. The radio station paid for the unsponsored shows. The sponsored shows, on the other hand, were created entirely by the company sponsoring the show; advertisers were totally in charge of the radio station’s content. The content became advertising. Radio set the precedent for television, in that the same companies that controlled radio early on went on to control television.
Soon thereafter, television inherited the structure of radio. In the ’40’s, during the rise of television, RCA also held a monopoly on all television sets sold. By 1945-1955, advertising had taken over all of television. Television was organized around the premise of selling things. The entire television industry was creating a political atmosphere of suspicion and fear. Senator Joseph McCarthy, the founder of McCarthyism, which was based on the fear of Communism, and the HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee, began to question people involved in television about their beliefs and associations.
What affected television in its early stages?
Politics (McCarthyism / HUAC).
Blacklists: From almost the inception of television, many writers, directors, and actors were considered to be pro-Communist and/or un-American.
Certain topics were totally off-limits at the time for television, particularly issues of race relations in the 1960’s. Overall, networks were not happy with the political situation for television in the 1960’s, both in terms of the blacklists, and of the fact that when every show had one sponsor, that sponsor controlled the entire program. Networks preferred to control the program, by way of moving to multiple sponsors/advertisers, where networks would retain control of the show, and advertisers would buy time in between the programming.
In the 1950’s, networks decided to eliminate the practice of sponsors controlling the shows with a move to spot selling, or advertisements between programs, as we know it today. What caused the move to spot selling?
Discovery of fraud in the quiz shows on television. Quiz shows were extremely popular at the time, and were liked by the networks, the sponsors, and the viewers alike. It turned out, however, that quiz shows were largely fixed. Charles Van Doren on “21” became a huge star due to his repeated wins, until it came out that the whole thing had been fixed. In the case of “The $64,000 Question,” the owner of Revlon was personally hand-selecting the winners and losers on the show.
It was becoming financially difficult for just one advertiser to support an entire show.
Around this same time came the inception of ratings to measure a show’s popularity. Ratings, quite simply, measure the number of people watching a show. To understand why ratings are so important, it’s crucial to understand how the television industry works, through three questions, and their respective answers:
Who owns television? [The networks]
What is sold on television? [Viewer’s time, not television shows]
Who are the customers of television? [Advertisers, not viewers]
This might be a counterintuitive concept for some. The networks, which own television, areHistory of the Media – Old Television the buyers of shows, not the sellers. On the other hand, they sell our eyeballs, so to speak, to advertisers. Networks want the maximum possible profit from buying and selling time, both viewers’ time, and advertisers’ time.
The primary measure of television ratings, which determine the price of that time being bought and sold, is AC Nielsen, an independent company which provides information as to who watches what on television. Currently, about 4,000 households are used to represent the national viewing of television. In the 1980’s, only 1,200 households were used. Some households have an electronic device installed on their television which tracks what they watch, while others keep a diary of viewing habits.
There are two measures for determining a show’s audience. One is the rating, and the other is the share.
Rating: Percentage of total homes with televisions tuned into a particular show.
Share: Percentage of those watching television at a particular time who are tuned into a particular show.
The share is always greater than the rating. Ratings are more important for advertisers, and share is more important to the networks.
Total households with televisions: 150 million
Total households watching television at 8pm on Monday nights: 90 million
Total households watching American Idol at 8pm on Monday nights: 45 million
Therefore: Rating: 30, Share: 50
It’s important to note how many factors can skew the results. Shows cost producers much more than the networks typically pay them for those shows. The way for producers to make money is by getting the networks to renew the show, in order to have a shot at making money from syndication on other channels, also knows as reruns. That is the case when individual stations (say for example, the Miami affiliate of ABC wants to carry Seinfeld), buy the rights to a show from the producers of that show. Shows that last only one season, for the most part, lose millions of dollars. One of the most important factors in whether shows will be renewed or not is their rating.
This brings us to how ratings can be skewed. For example, if a show has a 20 share, and it needs a 25 share to be renewed for another season, what might the producers do? In principle, they need to convince another 5% of the people watching television when their show is on to watch their show; this is no simple task, as that involves convincing millions of people. However, since the ratings are based on those 4,000 Nielsen households, that means that they could convince just 200 Nielsen households to watch their show, which would increase the share from 20 to 25. This is why Nielsen households must be kept totally secret from the networks. When the Nielsen households have leaked to the networks, one way which they got people to watch their show was by offering viewers a small sum of money for filling out a survey about a commercial which they were told would play only during a particular show. Since they had to watch that channel while their show was on, this would boost the share.
Once ratings are determined, advertising prices are set by two factors:
* The size of the audience.
* The demographics (income, age, gender, occupation, etc) of the audience.
In short, the job of television programs is to collect our time as a product, which they then sell to advertisers. Programs have to support the advertising, delivering viewers in the best possible state of mind for buying when the time for the commercials comes, which brings us to the Golden Age of Television.
The 1950’s are considered the “Golden Age of Television.” During this time, something called the “Anthology Series,” where different actors each week took part in a show gained History of the Media – I Love Lucypopularity across the board…that is, with everyone except for advertisers. The anthology series format was not right for advertisers, as it covered topics which involved psychological confrontations which did not leave the viewers in the proper state of mind for buying the products shown to them between program segments. The subject matter of the anthology series was of the type that undermined the ads, almost making them seem fraudulent.
This brought up the question of what to network executives actually want shows to do? The answer is not to watch a program that makes them feel good, makes them laugh, or excites them, but rather to watch the television for a set amount of time. With so many new shows being proposed, standards began to be intentionally, or unintentionally, laid out for what shows could and couldn’t do. Risks could only be taken at the beginning and/or end of shows. Laugh tracks were conceived to tell the audience when to laugh. Programs began being tested with audiences prior to being put on television and/or radio. Show writers now had to write shows that would test well.
Naturally, this caused many of the same elements and themes to appear in all shows. This was the beginning of recombinant television culture, where the same elements are endlessly repeated, recombined, and mixed.
This same culture is what perpetuated the idea that people watch television, not specific shows. While people certainly choose to watch certain shows instead of others, people less commonly choose to watch television instead of other things. People watch television. Regardless of what was on, television viewing rates were extremely stable.
Easy to read introduction to Instagram article – Lots of simple, yet effective tips here – armywifetosuburba…
Medienhafen Düsseldorf, 05.01.2009
Best viewed large on black.
Don’t use this image on any media without my permission.
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24 Oras is GMA Network’s flagship newscast, anchored by Mike Enriquez, Mel Tiangco and Vicky Morales. It airs on GMA-7 Mondays to Fridays at 6:30 PM (PHL …
Standard growth media in the microbiology laboratory has been advancing in its development over the decades since the late 1800s, when agar was discovered by the use of extracts from red seaweeds, a gelling agent used also in making jellies. Agar is still in use today, and its use has not changed much over the decades. The many things that have changed are the chemicals and infusions used to create specialized growth media that is both selective and identifying: Chromogenic agar media.
Chromogenic agar media is a highly specialized growth medium for microbiologists to aid in the isolation and identification of certain types of pathogenic microorganisms. Many pathogenic organisms are also fastidious, difficult to grow on standard agar plates without enrichment of some sort. The use of broths for the proliferation of certain fastidious organisms is a technique that has not changed much in recent years, as it is a proven method for the enrichment of the organisms prior to agar plate inoculation.
Broths have a certain amount of nutrients to stimulate the propagation of a specific organism so there would be an abundance of living material to work with in the lab. Beef and brain extracts in broths can cause a dramatic escalation of organisms prior to inoculation of chromogenic agar media, so there is no doubt that there will be success after timed incubation.
When the enriched organism is available, inoculation of the chromogenic media follows, in the standard practice using aseptic techniques. After an incubation period of 18-24 hours, the agar plate is analysed for colony growth, colony count, colony morphology, which includes colony colour. This is vital for the positive identification of the specific organism being researched or diagnosed. Selective media like chromogenic agar can be specialized for a variety of fastidious and hard to identify bacteria strains.
There is a diversity of chromogenic agar media available to the microbiologists today. One such important media is MRSA identification media. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus is an organism that has been wreaking havoc in the populations of major countries, as well as undeveloped countries. This organism causes illnesses such as toxic shock syndrome or staph infections of skin, eye, and wounds. It is difficult to identify considering the other organisms that may contaminate or proliferate during the culturing process.
Hospitals and nursing care facilities have been attempting to isolate patients diagnosed with the harmful pathogen, and immediate identification is not only encouraged, but also necessary. Specialized chromogenic agar media is used for this, as it leaves no doubt of the identity of the organism if present. The selective agar has color indicators for easy morphological identification, as well as specialized inhibitors to screen out undesirable normal flora from interfering with the isolation techniques.
Chromogenic agar media is also used in the isolation and identification of gram-negative pathogens like Neisseria spp., which can cause not only meningitis in children, but can also be blamed for the spread of sexually transmitted disease throughout a community. Specialized growth media not only isolates the growth of these highly fastidious organisms, but inhibits the growth of less fastidious organisms as well. The chromogenic action of the agar makes identification more efficient also, as the colonies of Neisseria species have exclusive colour. Chromogenic agar media is the gold standard for the identification and analysis of pathogenic fastidious bacteria.
Digital Marketing 101 – If 2012 was the year of social media, 2013 is the year of mobile. Don't get left out.
Alex Jones talks with Jesse Ventura about his court case and how the corrupt mainstream media is now going to court to try to have the legal authority to lie …
It has become obvious now that the media advertises and promotes a very unhealthy trend of extreme dieting and other bad eating habits to women. Most of media sources put on their covers images of skinny emancipated females. Doing this they influence the subconscious mind of the masses. And women continue to spend their money trying to achieve this unattainable look they constantly see in media advertising.
To try and solve this problem let’s answer the next questions.
- What is body image?
- What kind of trends in the media industry are we noticing now?
- How do the media influence our perception of body image?
- What could be the reasons behind this?
- What are the consequences of this kind of trend?
- What are some real suggestions on how to improve your body image?
Your body image is how you perceive, think and feel about your body. This may have no bearing at all on your actual appearance. For instance, it is common in Western nations for women to believe they are larger and fatter than they really are. Only one in five women is satisfied with their body weight. Nearly half of all normal weight women overestimate their size and shape. A distorted body image can lead to self-destructive behavior, like dieting or eating disorders. Approximately nine out of 10 young Australian women have dieted at least once in their lives.
So, the basic trend in the media industry at the moment is to promote slim, even skinny unnatural looking women’s bodies as being beautiful.
Women of all ages but especially young women look at magazines, TV, movies and other media products full of images that show skinny women’s bodies. And these are perceived by the subconscious mind of young women as being a role model to follow and aspire to be like. Achieving this skinny look does not come naturally; it inevitably leads to practicing some kind of dieting, excessive exercising or abnormal eating behaviors.
Twenty years ago, the average model weighed 8 per cent less than the average woman–but today’s models weigh 23 per cent less. Advertisers believe that thin models sell products. When the Australian magazine New Woman recently included a picture of a heavy-set model on its cover, it received a truckload of letters from grateful readers praising the move. But its advertisers complained and the magazine returned to featuring bone-thin models.
What could be the reason behind all this? Why has this fashion trend occurred now?
Why are standards of beauty being imposed on women, the majority of whom are naturally larger than any of the models?
The reasons for this according to some analysts, is an economic one. By presenting an ideal look which is difficult to achieve and maintain the cosmetic and diet product industries are assured of growth and profits. It is estimated that the diet industry alone is worth $100 billion (U.S.) a year. This is a lot of money and certainly worth their while to continue to foster emancipated women as being the norm.
And the consequences of this trend are huge. On the one hand, women who are insecure about their bodies are more likely to buy beauty products, new clothes, and diet pills or other diet supplies.
On the other hand, research indicates that exposure to images of thin, young, air-brushed female bodies is linked to depression, loss of self-esteem and the development of unhealthy eating habits in women and girls.
The level of eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia are increasing rapidly every year. It is estimated that around 5 per cent of women and 1 percent of men have an eating disorders like anorexia or bulimia or binge eating some time in their life.
And about 15 per cent of all young women have significantly distorted eating attitudes and behavior that can lead to developing anorexia or bulimia in the near future.
So, what would be some real suggestions on how to improve your body image without resorting to unhealthy eating habits?
The First one is to change your goal from weight loss to just improving your health. Second, is to focus more the internal beauty like improving your self-esteem, self-confidence and internal strengths of your character.
Get informed by reading up on body image issues and self-improvement books. And give yourself a break from women’s magazines and the mass media advertising for a while if you feel you maybe prone to this kind of false perceptions.
To sum up, the media does impact on women’s body image significantly and it can affect women’s physical and mental health in a negative way. And the only way to stop these negative effects coming from the media is to teach women not to judge themselves by the beauty industry’s standards and learn not to compare themselves to the cover girls. And also it is important to promote a healthy life style with emphasis on internal beauty like improving self-esteem and self-confidence. Not on being a stick like model.
From Facebook to Google+, this #socialmedia image size guide gives you the exact dimensions for the top 8 social networks! PLUS best practices and strategies. via rebekahradice.com…
Salford Quays is an area of Salford, Greater Manchester, England, near the end of the Manchester Ship Canal. Previously the site of Manchester Docks, it became one of the first and largest urban regeneration projects in the United Kingdom following the closure of the dockyards in 1982.
100x100cm mixed media on canvas. For Sale.
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Outside of the academic environment, a harsh and seemingly ever-growing debate has appeared, concerning how mass media distorts the political agenda. Few would argue with the notion that the institutions of the mass media are important to contemporary politics. In the transition to liberal democratic politics in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe the media was a key battleground. In the West, elections increasingly focus around television, with the emphasis on spin and marketing. Democratic politics places emphasis on the mass media as a site for democratic demand and the formation of “public opinion”. The media are seen to empower citizens, and subject government to restraint and redress. Yet the media are not just neutral observers but are political actors themselves. The interaction of mass communication and political actors — politicians, interest groups, strategists, and others who play important roles — in the political process is apparent. Under this framework, the American political arena can be characterized as a dynamic environment in which communication, particularly journalism in all its forms, substantially influences and is influenced by it.
According to the theory of democracy, people rule. The pluralism of different political parties provides the people with “alternatives,” and if and when one party loses their confidence, they can support another. The democratic principle of “government of the people, by the people, and for the people” would be nice if it were all so simple. But in a medium-to-large modern state things are not quite like that. Today, several elements contribute to the shaping of the public’s political discourse, including the goals and success of public relations and advertising strategies used by politically engaged individuals and the rising influence of new media technologies such as the Internet.
A naive assumption of liberal democracy is that citizens have adequate knowledge of political events. But how do citizens acquire the information and knowledge necessary for them to use their votes other than by blind guesswork? They cannot possibly witness everything that is happening on the national scene, still less at the level of world events. The vast majority are not students of politics. They don’t really know what is happening, and even if they did they would need guidance as to how to interpret what they knew. Since the early twentieth century this has been fulfilled through the mass media. Few today in United States can say that they do not have access to at least one form of the mass media, yet political knowledge is remarkably low. Although political information is available through the proliferation of mass media, different critics support that events are shaped and packaged, frames are constructed by politicians and news casters, and ownership influences between political actors and the media provide important short hand cues to how to interpret and understand the news.
One must not forget another interesting fact about the media. Their political influence extends far beyond newspaper reports and articles of a direct political nature, or television programs connected with current affairs that bear upon politics. In a much more subtle way, they can influence people’s thought patterns by other means, like “goodwill” stories, pages dealing with entertainment and popular culture, movies, TV “soaps”, “educational” programs. All these types of information form human values, concepts of good and evil, right and wrong, sense and nonsense, what is “fashionable” and “unfashionable,” and what is “acceptable” and “unacceptable”. These human value systems, in turn, shape people’s attitude to political issues, influence how they vote and therefore determine who holds political power.
“Do you have Facebook?”
“Yes, of course. But I don’t think you can find me, as there are too many people who have the same name as me. Try searching with my surname as well.”
“Hey, you celebrated your birthday in K-Box, right? I saw the photos in your Facebook.”
“Bro, I saw your comments about the YouTube video that I’ve posted in my blog. I’m happy that you are also deeply moved by the ‘Dancing Peacock Man’ as well.”
Social media or “social networking” has almost become part of our daily lives and being tossed around over the past few years. It is like any other media such as newspaper, radio and television but it is far more than just about sharing information and ideas. Social networking tools like Twitter, Facebook, Flickr and Blogs have facilitated creation and exchange of ideas so quickly and widely than the conventional media. The power of define and control a brand is shifting from corporations and institutions to individuals and communities. It is no longer on the 5Cs (e.g. condominium, credit cards and car) that Singaporeans once talked about. Today, it is about the brand new Cs: creativity, communication, connection, creation (of new ideas and products), community (of shared interests), collaboration and (changing the game of) competition.
In January 2010, InSites Consulting has conducted an online survey with 2,884 consumers from over 14 countries between the ages of 18 to 55 years old on social networking. More than 90% of participants know at least 1 social networking site and 72% of participants are members of at least 1 social networking site. On the average, people have about 195 friends and they log in twice a day to social networking sites. However, 55% of the users cannot access their social network websites at work. In the past, not many adults were able to make more than 500 friends, but with social media, even a child or teenager can get to know more than 500 people in a few days by just clicking the mouse. Social media has devalued the traditional definition of “friend” where it means trust, support, compatible values, etc. Although we get to know more people, we are not able to build strong bond with all the people whom we met as our available time is limited. Hence, there is an upcoming social trend of people with wider social circles, but weaker ties (people we don’t know very well but who provide us with useful information and ideas).
Social media also influences people’s buying behaviours. Digital Influence Group reported that 91% of the people say consumer reviews are the #1 aid to buying decisions and 87% trust a friend’s recommendation over critic’s review. It is thrice more likely to trust peer opinions over advertising for purchasing decisions. 1 word-of-mouth conversation has an impact of 200 TV ads. With the prevalence use of social media, there is numerous news related to it from the most viewed YouTube video on “Armless pianist wins ‘China’s Got Talent'” to Web-assisted suicide cases (e.g. New Jersey college student who killed himself after video of him in a sexual encounter with another man was posted online). Thus, does social networking make us better or worse off as a society?
Positive Effects of Social Media
Besides having opportunity to know a lot of people in a fast and easy way, social media also helped teenagers who have social or physical mobility restrictions to build and maintain relationships with their friends and families. Children who go overseas to study can still stay in meaningful contact with their parents. To a greater extend, there is anecdotal evidence of positive outcomes from these technologies.
In 2008, President-elected Obama won the election through the effective use of social media to reach millions of audience or voters. The Obama campaign had generated and distributed huge amount of contents and messages across email, SMS, social media platforms and their websites. Obama and his campaign team fully understood the fundamental social need that everyone shares – the need of being “who we are”. Therefore, the campaign sent the message as “Because It’s about YOU” and chose the right form of media to connect with individuals, call for actions and create community for a social movement. They encouraged citizens to share their voices, hold discussion parties in houses and run their own campaign meetings. It truly changed the delivery of political message.
Obama campaign had made 5 million “friends” on more than 15 social networking sites (3 million friends on Facebook itself) and posted nearly 2,000 YouTube videos which were watched over 80 million times. At its peak, their website, MyBarackObama.com, had 8.5 million monthly visitors and produced 400,000 blog posts. In order to ensure that their contents were found by people, the Obama campaign spent $3.5 million on Google search in October alone, $600,000 on Advertising.com, $467,000 on Facebook in 2008, etc. Currently, Obama’s Twitter account has close to 6 million followers.
In 2010, after the earthquake happened in Haiti, many of the official communication lines were down. The rest of the world was not able to grasp the full picture of the situation there. To facilitate the sharing of information and make up for the lack of information, social media came in very handy to report the news about the affected area on what happened and what help was needed. Tweets from many people provided an impressive overview of the ongoing events from the earthquake. BBC covered the event by combining tweets from the work of its reporter Matthew Price in Port-au-Prince at the ground. Guardian’s live blog also used social media together with the information from other news organisations to report about the rescue mission.
It has been two years since CNN officially launched iReport as a section of its website where people can upload video material, with contact information. During the Haiti crisis, CNN had published a range of social media material but not all the materials were verified. The editorial staff would vet the reports from the citizen journalists and labeled them differently compared to unverified contents. On Facebook, a group, named “Earthquake Haiti”, was formed to show support and share updates and news. It had more than 14,000 members and some users even pleaded for assistance to the injured Haitians in the group. Using email, Twitter and social networking sites like Facebook, thousands of volunteers as part of Project Ushahidi were able to map reports sent by people from Haiti.
The most impressive part of the social media’s impact on Haiti is the charity text-message donations that soared to over $10 million for the victims in Haiti. People interested in helping the victims are encouraged to text, tweet and publicize their support using various social networking sites. The Global Philanthropy Group had also started a campaign to ask wealthy people and celebrities, like Ben Stiller and John Legend to use Twitter and Facebook to encourage others to give to UNICEF. An aid worker, Saundra Schimmelpfennig, allowed the advice from other aid workers and donors to post on her blog regarding to choosing which charitable organisations to support. In the meantime, donors were asking questions in Twitter, Facebook and blogs about their donations and endorsements of their favourite charities. After every crisis, the social media for social cause becomes a more effective medium to spread the word.
Negative Effects of Social Media
There are always two sides of every coin. Social media is just a tool or mean for people to use. It is still up to the users on how to use this tool (just like a knife, can help you to cut food or hurt others). Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project and Elon University’s Imagining the Internet Center conducted a study on “The Future of Online Socializing” from the highly engaged, diverse set of respondents to an online, opt-in survey consisted of 895 technology stakeholders and critics. The negative effects presented by the respondents included time spent online robs time from important face-to-face relationships; the internet fosters mostly shallow relationships; the act of leveraging the internet to engage in social connection exposes private information; the internet allows people to silo themselves, limiting their exposure to new ideas; and the internet is being used to engender intolerance.
Some respondents also highlighted that there will be development of some new psychological and medical syndromes that will be “variations of depression caused by the lack of meaningful quality relationships”, and a “new world society”. The term, “Social Networking”, has begun to deceive the users to believe they are social creatures. For instance, spending a couple of hours using Farmville and chatting with friends concurrently does not convert into social skills. People become dependent on the technology and forget how to socialise in face-to-face context. The online personality of a person might be totally different from his/her offline character, causing chaos when the two personalities meet. It is apparent in online dating when the couple gets together in face-to-face for the first time. Their written profiles do not clearly represent their real-life characters. It is more enticing for people to type something that others want to hear than saying the truth.
Besides the “friendship”, creators of social networking sites and users redefine the term, “privacy” in the Internet as well. The challenge in data privacy is to share data while protecting personally identifiable information. Almost any information posted on social networking sites is permanent. Whenever someone posts pictures or videos on the web, it becomes viral. When the user deletes a video from his/her social network, someone might have kept it and then posted it onto other sites like YouTube already. People post photographs and video files on social networking sites without thinking and the files can reappear at the worst possible time. In 2008, a video of a group of ACJC students hazing a female student in school on her birthday was circulated and another video of a SCDF recruit being “welcomed” (was hosed with water and tarred with shoe polish) to a local fire station made its way online.
In the corporate world, human resource managers can access Facebook or MySpace to get to know about a candidate’s true colours, especially when job seekers do not set their profiles to private. Research has found that almost half of employers have rejected a potential worker after finding incriminating material on their Facebook pages. Some employers have also checked the candidates’ online details in Facebook pages to see if they are lying about their qualifications. Nowadays, younger generations have a complete disregard for their own privacy, opening doors to unwelcome predators or stalkers.
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When advertising your product, service, or company it is important to work with a media buying company that has experience and has conceived a distinctive methodology to get you the most media for your money. The media environment is ever changing and expanding so it is also imperative that they be flexible and creative to keep up with the trends.
Media buying is a branch of advertising that deals with purchasing space and time, through some sort of media outlet, for the use of the product, service, or client that is to be advertised. This time or space can be purchased in media platforms such as Internet, television, radio, and/or print. When choosing the platform that they would like to advertise with media professionals are also able to choose whether or not they would like to market their client locally, regionally, nationally, or internationally, depending on what is the best choice for the product.
Making the choice as to what medium should be pursued buyers will evaluate factors such as pricing, the format of the radio or television station, demographics, psychographics, geographic factors, and the amount of money that is able to be spent by the client. It will also need to be taken into account the time of day that the ad may be run and the audience that the particular product, service, or client is targeting.
It is pertinent that a buyer be knowledgeable about the medium, clients, consumers, and the criteria of what needs to go into each specialized ad. There a number of things that go into buying media that are tailored to fit a certain client’s goals. One of the first things should be to try to reach as many people as possible. Secondly it is important to know what time you would like your ad to be broadcast or during what program you would like it to be run. It is also extremely important to compare the rates that all of the television stations, radio stations, magazines, newspapers, websites, etc offer so that you and your buyer know where you are getting the best deal. Some of these outlets may even accept the quoted rate of a competitor or let you negotiate upon finding out that they may be charging more than the opposition.
Providing more reach for the clients’ budget should be the primary focus of any media buying professional. The firm that you choose should customize a campaign and approach to fit the needs of your company, product, or service and should be able to meet the objectives that you have made.
To understand this ad gives insight into Kerala culture.
The green background is a banana leaf. Traditionally, people used to eat off of banana leaves for all meals. Now it’s mostly relegated to special occasions; weddings, parties, and holidays like Onam or Vishu, etc. So on the leaf is placed all the meal items in a particular order.
This depicts a ‘sadya of brands’ – things to buy for Onam. Mostly on Onam all people should wear one new dress- if not a typical Kerala dress (mudu for men, settu mundu or sari for women – both off white with gold or colored border) then a western dress.
I was struck by the creativity in this ad!
Photo and description by Jennifer Kumar – follow on Facebook
Tagged: , Onam , Sadhya , 2011 , Ads , Advertising , Holiday , India , Kerala , Media
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Learn about how Programmatic is impacting digital advertising, what Real-Time-Bidding (RTB) is, and how publishers and marketers are capitalizing on this …